Parasitic insects and there health effects
Bed bugs are a type of insect that feed on human blood, usually at night. Their bites can result in a number of health effects including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Bed bug bites may lead to skin changes ranging from invisible to prominent blisters. Symptoms may take between minutes to days to appear. Itchiness is common, while some may feel tired or have a fever. Typically, uncovered areas of the body are affected and three bites occur in a row. Bed bugs bites are not known to transmit any infectious disease.
Bed bug bites are caused primarily by two species of the insect Cimex: Cimex lectularius (the common bed bug) and Cimex hemipterus. Their size ranges between 1 and 7mm. They spread by crawling between nearby locations or by being carried within personal items. Infestation is rarely due to a lack of hygiene but is more common in high-density areas. Diagnosis involves both finding the bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms. Bed bugs spend much of their time in dark, hidden locations like mattress seams or cracks in the wall.
Treatment is symptomatic. Eliminating bed bugs from the home is often difficult, partly because bed bugs can survive up to a year without feeding. Repeated treatments of a home may be required. These treatments may include heating the room to 50C (122F) for more than 90 minutes, frequent vacuuming, washing clothing at high temperatures, and the use of various pesticides.
Bed bugs occur in all regions of the globe. Rates of infestations are relatively common, following an increase since the 1990s. The exact causes of this increase is unclear; with proposals including greater travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings, a greater focus on control of other pests, and increasing resistance to pesticides. Bed bugs have been known human parasites for thousands of years.
Individual responses to bites vary, ranging from no visible effect (in about 2070%), to small macular spots, to prominent wheals and bullae formations along with intense itching that may last several days. The bites often occur in a line. A central spot of bleeding may also occur due to the release of anticoagulants in the bug's saliva.
Symptoms may not appear until some days after the bites have occurred. Reactions often become more brisk after multiple bites due to possible sensitization to the salivary proteins of the bed bug. The skin reaction usually occurs in the area of the bite which is most commonly the arms, shoulders and legs as they are more frequently exposed at night. Numerous bites may lead to an erythematous rash or urticaria.
Serious infestations and chronic attacks can cause anxiety, stress, and insomnia. Development of refractory delusional parasitosis is possible, as a person develops an overwhelming obsession with bed bugs.
A number of other symptoms may occur from either the bite of the bed bugs or from their exposure. Anaphylaxis from the injection of serum and other nonspecific proteins has been rarely documented. Due to each bite taking a tiny amount of blood, chronic or severe infestation may lead to anemia. Bacterial skin infection may occur due to skin break down from scratching.Systemic poisoning may occur if the bites are numerous. Exposure to bed bugs may trigger an asthma attack via the effects of airborne allergens although evidence of this association is limited. There is no evidence that bed bugs transmit infectious diseases even though they appear physically capable of carrying pathogens and this possibility has been investigated. The bite itself may be painful thus resulting in poor sleep and worse work performance.
Similar to humans, pets can also be bitten by bed bugs. The signs left by the bites are the same as in case of people and cause identical symptoms (skin irritation, scratching etc).
Bed bug infestations are primarily the result of two species of insects from genus Cimex: Cimex lectularius (the common bed bug) and Cimex hemipterus. These insects feed exclusively on blood and may survive a year without eating. Adult Cimex are light brown to reddish-brown, flat, oval, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Adults grow to 45mm (0.160.20in) long and 1.53mm (0.0590.118in) wide.
Bed bugs have five immature nymph life stages and a final sexually mature adult stage. They shed their skins through ecdysis at each stage, discarding their outer exoskeleton. Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like, and like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.
Bed bugs are obligatory bloodsuckers. They have mouth parts that saw through the skin, and inject saliva with anticoagulants and painkillers. Sensitivity of humans varies from extreme allergic reaction to no reaction at all (about 20%). The bite usually produces a swelling with no red spot, but when many bugs feed on a small area, reddish spots may appear after the swelling subsides. Bedbugs prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck, and arms of a sleeping person.
Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals. Cimex lectularius only feeds every five to seven days, which suggests that it does not spend the majority of its life searching for a host. When a bed bug is starved, it leaves its shelter and searches for a host. It returns to its shelter after successful feeding or if it encounters exposure to light. Cimex lectularius aggregate under all life stages and mating conditions. Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. Airborne pheromones are responsible for aggregations.
Infestation is rarely caused by a lack of hygiene. Transfer to new places is usually in the personal items of the human they feed upon. Dwellings can become infested with bed bugs in a variety of ways, such as:
Though bed bugs will opportunistically feed on pets, they do not live or travel on the skin of their hosts, and pets are not believed to be a factor in their spread.
A definitive diagnosis of health effects due to bed bugs requires a search for and finding of the insect in the sleeping environment as symptoms are not sufficiently specific. Bed bugs classically form a line of bites colloquially referred to as "breakfast, lunch, and dinner" and rarely feed in the armpit or behind the knee which may help differentiate it from other biting insects. If the number in a house is large a pungent sweet odor may be described. There are specially trained dogs that can detect this smell.
Bed bugs can exist singly, but tend to congregate once established. Although strictly parasitic, they spend only a tiny fraction of their lifecycles physically attached to hosts. Once a bed bug finishes feeding, it relocates to a place close to a known host, commonly in or near beds or couches in clusters of adults, juveniles, and eggswhich entomologists call harborage areas or simply harborages to which the insect returns after future feedings by following chemical trails. These places can vary greatly in format, including luggage, inside of vehicles, within furniture, among bedside cluttereven inside electrical sockets and nearby laptop computers. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds, or rodents. They are also capable of surviving on domestic cats and dogs, though humans are the preferred host of C. lectularius.
Bed bugs can also be detected by their characteristic smell of rotting raspberries. Bed bug detection dogs are trained to pinpoint infestations, with a possible accuracy rate between 11% and 83%. Homemade detectors have been developed.
Other possible conditions with which these conditions can be confused include scabies, gamasoidosis, allergic reactions, mosquito bites, spider bites, chicken pox and bacterial skin infections.
To prevent bringing bed bugs to one's own home, travelers are advised to take precautions after visiting an infested site: generally, these include checking shoes on leaving the site, changing clothes in a garage before returning to their home, and putting the used clothes in a clothes dryer outside the house. When visiting a new lodging, it is advised to check the bed before taking suitcases into the sleeping area and putting the suitcase on a raised stand to make bedbugs less able to crawl in. "An extreme measure would be putting the suitcase in the tub." Clothes should be hung up or left in the suitcase, and never left on the floor. The founder of a company dedicated to bedbug extermination said that 5% of hotel rooms he books into were infested. He advised people never to sit down on public transport; check office chairs, plane seats and hotel mattresses, and monitor and vacuum home beds once a month.
Treatment requires keeping the person from being repeatedly bitten and possible symptomatic use of antihistamines and corticosteroids (either topically or systemically). There however is no evidence that medications improve outcomes and symptoms usually resolve without treatment in 12 weeks.
Avoiding repeated bites can be difficult, since it usually requires eradicating bed bugs from a home or workplace; eradication frequently requires a combination of pesticide and non-pesticide approaches. Pesticides that have historically been found to be effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos and malathion. Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time and there are concerns of negative health effects from their usage. Mechanical approaches such as vacuuming up the insects and heat-treating or wrapping mattresses have been recommended.
Once established, bed bugs are extremely difficult to get rid of. This frequently requires a combination of nonpesticide approaches and the use of insecticides.
Mechanical approaches, such as vacuuming up the insects and heat-treating or wrapping mattresses, are effective. An hour at a temperature of 45C (113F) or over, or two hours at less than 17C (1F) kills them. This may include a domestic clothes drier for fabric or a commercial steamer. Bed bugs and their eggs will die on contact when exposed to surface temperatures above 180F (82C) and a steamer can reach well above 230F (110C). A study found 100% mortality rates for bed bugs exposed to temperatures greater than 50C (122F) for more than 2 minutes. The study recommended maintaining temperatures of above 48C (118F) for more than 20 min to effectively kill all life stages of bed bugs, and because in practice treatment times of 6 to 8 hours are used to account for cracks and indoor clutter. This method is expensive and has caused fires. Starving them is not effective as they can survive without eating for 100 to 300 days, depending on temperature. One expert recommends not trying to get rid of bed bugs exclusively on one's own.
It was stated in 2012[update] that no truly effective insecticides were available. Insecticides that have historically been found effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos, and malathion. Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time, and harm to health from their use is of concern. The carbamate insecticide propoxur is highly toxic to bed bugs, but it has potential toxicity to children exposed to it, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has been reluctant to approve it for indoor use. Boric acid, occasionally applied as a safe indoor insecticide, is not effective against bed bugs because they do not groom.
Bed bugs occur around the world. Before the 1950s about 30% of houses in the United States had bedbugs. Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s. Before the 1980s they were common in the developing world but rare in the developed world. The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.
The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, increased immigration from the developing world to the developed world, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests, resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides. Declines in household cockroach populations that have resulted from the use of insecticides effective against this major bed bug predator have aided the bed bugs' resurgence, as have bans on DDT and other potent pesticides.[medical citation needed]
The fall in bed bug populations after the 1930s in the developed world is believed to be partly due to the use of DDT to kill cockroaches. The invention of the vacuum cleaner and simplification of furniture design may have also played a role. Others believe it might simply be the cyclical nature of the organism.
The common bed bug (C. lectularius) is the species best adapted to human environments. It is found in temperate climates throughout the world. Other species include Cimex hemipterus, found in tropical regions, which also infests poultry and bats, and Leptocimex boueti, found in the tropics of West Africa and South America, which infests bats and humans. Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.
Bed bug infestations have resurged since the 1980s for reasons that are not clear, but contributing factors may be complacency, increased resistance, bans on pesticides, and increased international travel. The U.S. National Pest Management Association reported a 71% increase in bed bug calls between 2000 and 2005. The number of reported incidents in New York City alone rose from 500 in 2004 to 10,000 in 2009. In 2013, Chicago was listed as the number 1 city in the United States with the worst bed bug infestation. As a result, the Chicago City Council passed a bed bug control ordinance to limit their spread. Additionally, bed bugs are reaching places in which they never established before, such as southern South America.
Cimex lectularius may have originated in the Middle East in caves inhabited by bats and humans.
Bed bugs were mentioned in ancient Greece as early as 400 BC, and were later mentioned by Aristotle. Pliny's Natural History, first published circa AD 77 in Rome, claimed bed bugs had medicinal value in treating ailments such as snake bites and ear infections. (Belief in the medicinal use of bed bugs persisted until at least the 18th century, when Guettard recommended their use in the treatment of hysteria.)
Bed bugs were first mentioned in Germany in the 11th century, in France in the 13th century, and in England in 1583, though they remained rare in England until 1670. Some in the 18th century believed bed bugs had been brought to London with supplies of wood to rebuild the city after the Great Fire of London (1666). Giovanni Antonio Scopoli noted their presence in Carniola (roughly equivalent to present-day Slovenia) in the 18th century.
Traditional methods of repelling and/or killing bed bugs include the use of plants, fungi, and insects (or their extracts), such as black pepper; black cohosh (Actaea racemosa); Pseudarthria hookeri; Laggera alata (Chinese yngmo co | ); Eucalyptus saligna oil; henna (Lawsonia inermis or camphire); "infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris" (presumably cockchafer); fly agaric (Amanita muscaria); tobacco; "heated oil of Terebinthina" (i.e. true turpentine); wild mint (Mentha arvensis); narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale); Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry); Robert geranium (Geranium robertianum); bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.); "herb and seeds of Cannabis"; "opulus" berries (possibly maple or European cranberrybush); masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), "and many others".
In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended as an indoor domestic fumigant against bed bugs.
Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth or Kieselguhr. Of these, diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a nontoxic (when in amorphous form) residual pesticide for bed bug abatement. While diatomaceous earth performed poorly, silica gel may be effective.
Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.
Bean leaves have been used historically to trap bedbugs in houses in Eastern Europe. The trichomes on the bean leaves capture the insects by impaling the feet (tarsi) of the insects. The leaves are then destroyed.
Prior to the mid-20th century, bed bugs were very common. According to a report by the UK Ministry of Health, in 1933, all the houses in many areas had some degree of bed bug infestation. The increase in bed bug populations in the early 20th century has been attributed to the advent of electric heating, which allowed bed bugs to thrive year-round instead of only in warm weather.
Bed bugs were a serious problem at US military bases during World War II. Initially, the problem was solved by fumigation, using Zyklon Discoids that released hydrogen cyanide gas, a rather dangerous procedure. Later, DDT was used to good effect.
The decline of bed bug populations in the 20th century is often credited to potent pesticides that had not previously been widely available. Other contributing factors that are less frequently mentioned in news reports are increased public awareness and slum clearance programs that combined pesticide use with steam disinfection, relocation of slum dwellers to new housing, and in some cases also follow-up inspections for several months after relocated tenants moved into their new housing.
The rise in infestations has been hard to track because bed bugs are not an easily identifiable problem and is one that people prefer not to discuss. Most of the reports are collected from pest-control companies, local authorities, and hotel chains. Therefore, the problem may be more severe than is currently believed.
Bed bugs are an increasing cause for litigation.Courts have, in some cases, exacted large punitive damage judgments on some hotels.Many of New York City's Upper East Side home owners have been afflicted, but they tend to be silent publicly in order not to ruin their property values and be seen as suffering a blight typically associated with the lower classes.
See the rest here:
Bed bug - Wikipedia
- Why You Should Count on a Professional Bed Bug Exterminator - July 11th, 2020
- How to get rid of bed bugs: Four simple tips to eradicate them from your bed - Express - July 11th, 2020
- Bed Bugs | Faith Pest Control - July 11th, 2020
- WNBA Bubble: Players complain of bed bugs and worms in IMG... - The Sportsrush - July 11th, 2020
- BedBug Exterminator | BedBug Control | Bed Bug Information - July 6th, 2020
- A young Montreal mother goes from delight to dread after getting city-run housing - CTV News Montreal - July 2nd, 2020
- How to treat flea bites and get rid of fleas in your home - Insider - INSIDER - July 1st, 2020
- Experts: Bed Bugs Could Be Weakened by Coronavirus Pandemic - Best Life - July 1st, 2020
- How to get rid of bed bugs fast and 3 signs you have an infestation - Insider - INSIDER - June 29th, 2020
- Bed bugs treatment: How to get rid of bed bugs - key tips - Express - April 30th, 2020
- How to Get Rid of Bed Bugs: A Low-Cost DIY Extermination ... - April 7th, 2020
- Bed Bug Exterminator Winnipeg Is The Top Bed Bug Exterminator In Winnipeg - MENAFN.COM - April 6th, 2020
- Bed Bug Exterminator Winnipeg Is The Top Bed Bug Exterminator In Winnipeg - Press Release - Digital Journal - April 2nd, 2020
- Two reports of possible bed bug sightings on campus - The Eyeopener - March 13th, 2020
- Ypsilanti library to reopen Thursday after closure for bed bug treatment - MLive.com - March 6th, 2020
- Local News Bed Bugs, A Pesky Problem That Can Happen Anywhere You Live Tatianna Taylor 4 - kjrh.com - March 6th, 2020
- Local exterminator says bed bugs can end up in vehicles - WZZM13.com - February 29th, 2020
- Uber, Lyft drivers in Dallas having cars treated for bedbugs - Yahoo News - February 29th, 2020
- Exterminator Says He Regularly Treats Rideshare Vehicles For Bed Bugs - GM Authority - February 29th, 2020
- Bed bug bites: How to know if youve been bitten by the household pest - the signs to spot - Express - February 28th, 2020
- Texas Exterminator Treats '5 to 10' Rideshare Vehicles for Bed Bugs Each Week - The Drive - February 26th, 2020
- Bed bugs at Radio-Canada - The Ticker Times - February 19th, 2020
- Baby girl dies from gas poisoning after neighbours spray flat with severely toxic substances to get rid of b - The Sun - February 18th, 2020
- 'Our little epidemic:' Bedbug infestations on the increase, say pest experts - Hickory Daily Record - February 13th, 2020
- Inuit say airport hotel is inhospitable, unsuitable for housing the sick - CTV News - January 10th, 2020
- We caught bedbugs from traveling and then the nightmare began - The Points Guy - December 23rd, 2019
- Press Release: Experts Warns By Pest Encounters During This Thanks Giving Season with Fast Pest Control Australia - PRWire - December 8th, 2019
- Protecting your home and family: The top 10 myths of bed bugs - Richland Source - November 24th, 2019
- Can Bed Bugs Stand the Heat? - PCT - PCT Magazine - November 24th, 2019
- East Islip home has massive hive with 120,000 bees - Newsday - November 20th, 2019
- How Much Do Bed Bug Exterminators Cost? (A Simple Guide ... - November 8th, 2019
- Can Bed Bugs Live In Wood Furniture and How to Remove Them ... - October 14th, 2019
- The 10 Best Bed Bug Exterminators Near Me (with Free ... - October 14th, 2019
- How to Deal with Bed Bugs at Your Rental Property - October 13th, 2019
- Bed bugs | UMN Extension - October 13th, 2019
- Bedbugs: Bite Treatment, Signs, Pictures & Identification - October 6th, 2019
- Apartment Bed Bugs | RPA Tenant Rights Blog - October 4th, 2019
- Preparing Your House for Bedbug Treatments | NC State ... - October 2nd, 2019
- The 10 Best Exterminators Near Me (with Free Estimates) - September 24th, 2019
- What to Do Before And After The Exterminator Comes for Bedbugs - September 10th, 2019
- Will an Exterminator Get Rid of Bed Bugs? How to Get Rid ... - September 10th, 2019
- Bed Bug Exterminator NYC | Extermination Treatment ... - May 23rd, 2019
- Bed Bugs Toronto - Pestend Affordable Pest Exterminator - May 13th, 2019
- Bed Bugs Treatment - May 12th, 2019
- Buffalo Bed Bug PCP | Professional Pest Control Buffalo ... - April 30th, 2019
- Bedbug Exterminator | Bed Bug Control | Bed Bug Infestation - April 20th, 2019
- Exterminator Bug Services |authorSTREAM - April 14th, 2019
- Milwaukee Bed Bug Exterminator | Pest Control Service | A ... - March 14th, 2019
- 6 Home Remedies to Get Rid of Bed Bugs [Incl. Recipes] - March 12th, 2019
- #1 Bed Bug Exterminator & Pest Control in Houston Texas ... - March 6th, 2019
- How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs (COMPLETE GUIDE) - February 16th, 2019
- Metro Detroit & Atlanta Bed Bugs - Metro Detroit Exterminator - February 10th, 2019
- How to Check for Bed Bugs: Discover where they hide and ... - February 10th, 2019
- Chicago IL Exterminator, Pest Control, Termite Inspections - February 9th, 2019
- How much does it cost to get rid of bed bugs in Toronto? - February 2nd, 2019
- Are Bed Bugs in the Walls? | Bed Bug Exterminator NYC | 24 ... - February 2nd, 2019
- Can Dogs Carry Bed Bugs? | Bed Bug Exterminator NYC | 24/7 ... - January 31st, 2019
- Affordable Bed Bug Exterminators: Pest Control Bed Bugs - January 24th, 2019
- Bed Bugs - January 24th, 2019
- What Do Bed Bugs Look Like (53 PICTURES OF BED BUGS) - January 24th, 2019
- Bed Bugs Guide - How to Kill Bed Bugs - January 10th, 2019
- Alpha Bed Bug Exterminator NYC - Manhattan | Treatment ... - January 4th, 2019
- Bed bug control & treatment - Expert exterminator for bed ... - January 4th, 2019
- Bed Bugs | Pest Control and Bug Exterminator Blog - November 21st, 2018
- Bed Bugs: How to Identify Bedbugs and How to Get ... - WebMD - October 3rd, 2018
- Bed Bug Exterminator NYC Testimonial - Watch Now - Bed Bug Exterminator NYC - September 27th, 2018
- Bed Bugs Exterminator Crew | Call 888-329-7794 - September 8th, 2018
- 2018 Average Bed Bug Exterminator Cost (with Price Factors) - July 6th, 2018
- Bed bug control techniques - Wikipedia - May 19th, 2018
- Heat Pro | Denver, Co Bed Bug Exterminator, Heat Treatment ... - May 2nd, 2018
- Pest Control | Bed Bug Exterminator Iowa City, Cedar ... - April 1st, 2018
- Bed Bug Facts & Pest Information: How Do You Get Bed Bugs? - March 22nd, 2018
- Bed Bug Extermination Cost: Inspection and Treatment Costs - March 18th, 2018
- Pest Control Exterminators Bed Bugs Roaches Termites - December 30th, 2017
- Bed Bug Exterminator Indianapolis - The Bed Bug Co. - December 27th, 2017
- The Best Bed Bugs Exterminator in Queens, NY - November 25th, 2017
- Bed bugs, drug paraphernalia greet 6th graders at Estes Park YMCA - The Denver Channel - September 2nd, 2017
- Guaranteed Bed Bug Exterminator in Brooklyn, NYC ... - September 2nd, 2017
- College students told to continue living in apartment with bedbugs - WRAL.com - September 1st, 2017
- Royster deals with found bed bug - Chanute Tribune - September 1st, 2017